The development of automotive emission control technology over the last three and a half decades is one of the greatest environmental success stories of this century. Compared to the 1960s the emission of motor vehicles has dropped to a fraction, the fuel economy has doubled.
New Innovations Which Changed the Gasoline Emission Scenario are multi-point fuel injection (MPFI), Variable valve timing (VVT), 3 way catalytic converter, Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) & On-board diagnostic (OBD) whereas for reduction of Diesel Engine Emission Turbocharger, Fuel injection system, Cooled EGR, After treatment devices such as Oxidation catalyst, Particulate traps, Lean NOx trap & SCR is used. There are some technical & non-technical measures by which emission can be controlled.
Non-Technical Control Measures:
· Good town planning (low skyscrapers /satellite cities).
· Congestion charges, area-licensing scheme, parking charges, phasing out of vehicles, etc.
· Proper traffic pattern & road networking (eg. Flyovers).
· Public awareness (energy efficient purchase, driving habits, carpooling).
· Efficient public transport/transit system (Bus Rapid Transit).
· Promote cycling/walking/Bicycle Lanes/2 Wheeler Bridges.
· Proper maintenance.
· Scrappage of Vehicles above 15 years.
· Prevent Adulteration of fuels.
· Living with plants.
Technical Control Measures:
· Clean fuels & lubricants.
· Alternate fuels.
· After treatment.
· Optimal design of engines.
· Optimization of the driveline to improve fuel efficiency.
· Retro fitment of new technologies.
Source & Image Courtesy: Auto how stuff works,